When Fadak was forcefully usurped from the Chief of the Ladies of Universe — Fatemah Zahra (s.a.) — by the first caliph Abu Bakr, the infallible daughter of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a) ordered that curtains should be drawn inside Masjid-e-Nabawi.
Following which, Janabe Zahra (s.a.) entered the mosque and gave an articulate and coherent sermon. First, she (s.a.) averred the Oneness of Allah the Almighty then she spoke about Islam and its laws after which she (s.a.) started to converse on the issue of Fadak.
Janabe Fatemah (s.a.) said: “Everyone is fully aware that Fadak was gifted to me by my respected father (s.a.w.a.) and it was under my ownership. Therefore, on what premises has the government confiscated it?”
After her speech, Abu Bakr retorted, “We want you prove to us by producing witnesses that what you claim [that Fadak was gifted to you by The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.)]”
Ironically, in the light of Islamic laws, it is Abu Bakr who should have put forward evidence for claiming Fadak from Fatemah Zahra (s.a.). Religious rules clearly state that a thing which is already in possession of a Muslim is in itself an irrefutable evidence that the thing belongs to him/her.
On this basis, Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab should have brought forward evidence for filching Fadak from the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.).
Ameerul Momineen Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) testified that Fadak was gifted to Janabe Zahra (s.a.) by her father (s.a.w.a.). The fourth witness was Umme Ayman — regarding whom Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had categorically stated that he was from among the women of paradise — and the fifth person to testify was Asma binte Umays.
But Umar rejected the testimonies of those pious personalities whom the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a..) had taken along with him to confront the Christians of Najran. This incident is famous as Mubahela and has been documented in Surah Nisa. Continue reading →
Second Caliph Umar ibn al Khattab (la) introduced numerous innovations in Islam (that did not exist during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and forbade things which the Prophet himself had enjoined. To quote a few:
1) He initiated the congregational Tarweeh prayer in the month of Ramzan, which the Prophet himself had forbidden it upon the community (Imam al- Bukhari, “Sahih”, vol. 3 and 8)
2) He added the following line into the adhan of the Fajr prayers, “As-Salatu khairum minan nawm (Prayer is better than sleep)” (Imam al-Malik, “al-Muwatta”)
3) Pointing the index finger during recitation of salutations (salam) in prayers towards the Kaabah (Shibli al-Nomani, “al-Farooq”; Shah Waliyullah Muhaddith al-Dehlawi, “Izalatul Khifa”, vol. 3)
4) Changed the ruling of the Noble Prophet by treating three pronounced divorces in one sitting and same time, as one (Imam al-Muslim, “Sahih”)
5) The first one to award himself the title of Amirul Mumeneen (Imam al-Bukhari, “Sahih”; Ibn Khaldun, “al-Muqaddamah”; Shibli Numani, “al-Farooq”)
6) Entered into a treaty with the Christians of Syria in which he offered them entirely new terms by drafting a document that sought to humiliate them, quite contrary to the Prophet’s dealings with them (Ibn Taymiyah, “al-Fatawa”; Ibn Hazm, “al-Muhalla”; Shibli al-Numani, “al-Farooq”)
7) Ordered the killing of Magians (Zoroastrian). (Abu Dawud, “al-Sunan”, bk. 19)
8) Depriving the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet a share from the khums after his death
9) Despatching cruel commanders (like Khalid b. Walid) with drawn swords and large troops to expand his dominion under the pretext of spreading Islam far and wide
10) Forbidding the writing of Prophetic traditions (Hadith)
11) Prohibiting the pronouncement of “Hayya ala khairil Amal” (come towards the best deed As-Salat) in the adhan (Imam al-Malik, “al-Muwatta”; al-Taftazani, “Shahr al-Maqasid”; al-Qushaji, “Shahr al-Tajrid”; Ali al-Halabiyah, “Siratul Halabiyah”
12) Prohibited the mutah (temporary marriage) of Hajj and mutah with women while both of these were permitted during the lifetime of the Prophet (Imam al-Bukhari, “Sahih”; Imam al-Muslim, “Sahih”, vol. 1; al-Taftazni, “Shahr al-Maqasid”; al-Qushaji, “Shahr al-Tajrid”). He most audaciously declared, “There are two mutah which existed in the time of the Prophet of Allah and during Abu Bakr which I have banned and I will punish those who disobey my orders – these two are the mutah of the Hajj and the mutah of the women.” Imam Ali says, “If Umar had not forbidden mutah, there would have been only a few unfortunate men who committed fornication.” (al-Tabari, “al-Tafsir”). Abdullah b. Abbas also comments saying, “Muttah was a blessing that Allah, the Almighty, endowed the nation of Muhammad and had it not been prohibited, no one except the truly perverted ones would have committed adultery.” (Ibn Athar, “al-Nihiyah”; al-Zamakhshari, “al-Faiq”)
13) He forbade the mahr for women to be more than 400 dirhams, even when a woman in the public pointed out a verse from the Quran permitting it. (Jalaluddin al-Suyyti, “Tafsir Durr al-Manthur”, vol. 2; Ibn Kathir, “al-Tafsir”, vol. 1; al-Zamakhshari, “Tafsir al-Kashshif”, vol. 1; Ibn Majah, “al-Sunan” vol. 1; al-Baihaqi, “Sunan al-Kubra”, vol. 1; al-Qastalani “Irshadus Sari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari” vol. 8; Muttaqi al-Hindi, “Kanzul Ummal” vol. 8; Hakim al-Naishapuri, “al-Mustadrak” vol. 2), and many more acts.
One should refer to the words of the Quran, “And whatever the Apostle give you, accept it, and whatever he prevents you from, keep away from it; and fear (the wrath of Allah); Verily Allah is severe in retribution.” Sura Hashr (59): 7) — however Umar seemed to be heedless of this injunction of the Quran!
بسم الله الرّحمن الرحيم
Imam Ja’far aI-Sadiq (a.s.) narrates on the authority of his forefathers (a.s.) that when people pledged their allegiance (bay’at) to Abu Bakr, atrocities committed on Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) became manifest and Abu Bakr reached the position he desired to reach, he started portraying to the people that he had a very soft corner for Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) and met him in a very warm and friendly manner. However, Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) met him like one meets an opponent or an enemy. Being uncomfortable with this, Abu Bakr sought permission to meet Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) so that he could make him (a.s.) pleased with himself. He wanted to convince Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) that he hadn’t committed any mistake, rather the people had pledged their allegiance to him and that he didn’t have any desire for being the Caliph of the Muslims.
He was on the lookout for an opportunity and one day he came to know that Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) alone in his house. He immediately reached there and sought permission to meet him (a.s.):
Imam (a.s.) also gave him the permission. As soon as he entered the house, he started saying, “O Abal Hasan! I’ve neither conspired in the matter of Caliphate nor have I played foul. I am absolutely unworthy of Caliphate neither do I have any desire or inclination towards it. Rather, I am not convinced whether I can satisfy the needs of the Muslims. Neither am I better than others, nor do I possess lots of wealth nor a powerful tribe nor relatives. Then why are you treating me in this manner? Why are you dissatisfied with me? Why do you look down upon me? I do not deserve such a conduct.”
Imam Ali (a.s) replied:
“Didn’t you crave for the Caliphate? Then why did you run hither thither for it? And after this you say you do not consider yourself worthy of it. And that you do not have faith upon yourself?
Abu Bakr started saying: I have heard a tradition from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.s.)
“Allah the Exalted shall not allow my nation to gather upon deviation.”
Since I saw that everyone was paying his allegiance to me, I accepted their allegiance to prevent them from deviation as per the saying of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.s.) If I was aware of a single person opposing me; I would never have accepted the allegiance.
Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) retorted:
The tradition which you have narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.s.) — Allah shall not allow my nation to gather upon deviation —Am I not a part of this nation? Continue reading →